In this section, you can download deliverables and publications. You can also read news about the Core project.

The final deliverables of the project (updated): 

Deliverable CORE WP1: Renewable based Energy System with P2H and P2G

  • The report utilizes already existing energy system scenarios from different Danish scenario providers. The main objective is to analyze the influence of different technologies on the different types of future renewable-based energy systems. A special focus is put on power-to-heat (P2H) and power-to-gas (P2G) technologies. However, the scope is not limited to these technologies. The scenarios for 2035 and 2050 are included.

Deliverable CORE WP2 – D2.1: Techno-economic assessment of solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOEC)

  • The report presents the realistic scope of SOEC commercialization for mid-term (2030-2040) Danish power system. The discussions are focused on three selected essential topics: efficiency, ramping ability, and economic attractiveness of SOECs.

Deliverable CORE WP2 – D2.2: Thermal Energy Storage Technologies and Cost Analysis

  • The report gives an overview of the different types of TES systems and their specific applications. It also describes the most important parameters, which can influence the overall efficiency of the system. A brief explanation of all the components in the pilot plant and their classification is also provided. This forms the basis of the techno-economic model that has been developed. A simple economic analysis of an HTTES system has been performed in which different system sizes are considered, different technical constructions and finally different chargers and dischargers.

Deliverable CORE WP3: Flexibility and ramping requirement

  • The report summarizes the study of the flexibility requirement of the future 100% renewable-based Danish energy systems by 2050. The flexibility characteristics of different flexibility options both from the supply side including the hydro power plants, biomass power plants, and CHPs, and from the demand side including demand-side management industrial/household loads), the power to heat, and power to gas are introduced. Besides, the battery energy storage systems and EVs can provide flexibility support at both supply and demand sides. The flexibility characteristics such as the reaction time, ramping rate, start-up time, operation range are quantified. Additionally, the flexibility requirement of future Danish integrated energy system with large-scale renewables in 2050 is evaluated.

Deliverable CORE-WP4: Market Framework Design and Business Model

  • The objective of this report is to improve coordination of power, heat and natural gas systems with particular attention to market-based coordination schemes by defining new market products and mechanisms. Enhanced coordination aims at unveiling potential synergies and harvesting flexible assets in a way that benefits the overall energy system. This report aims to quantify potential flexibility from multi-energy coordination and investigates how markets can facilitate the utilization of available synergies. The new concepts introduced in this report span different degrees of coordination for power, natural gas and heat systems and awareness of the uncertainty introduced by renewable energy sources such as wind power production.

Deliverable CORE WP5: Optimal Dispatch Strategies and Online Control

  • The main objective of this working package is to develop optimal dispatch and online control algorithm for integrated energy systems. The mathematical models of integrated energy system, i.e. district heating system, natural gas system and electric power system, are developed based on the Danish case study for 2035 and 2050.  Moreover, the scheduling of Danish integrated energy system is performed. The day-ahead optimal dispatch is developed for integrated Danish energy system and the real-time scheduling based on the model predictive control is performed. Model predictive control ensures the cost and energy efficient energy system while minimizing the deviation from the day-ahead schedule. Integration of multiple energy systems provides the flexibility needed for the future Danish energy system.

Deliverable CORE WP6: Real Time Demonstration and Recommendation

  • The main objective of this working package is to demonstrate the coordinated operation, optimal dispatch and online control of the integrated energy systems. The 2035 and 2050 Danish electricity systems are modelled using planning method. The planning results of the 2035 and 2050 Danish electricity systems are analyzed and the 2035 and 2050 cases are compared. Furthermore, the close‐loop test platform based on the real time digital simulator (RTDS) is set up for the 2035 and 2050 Danish electricity systems. The interactions between the software (MPC in MATLAB) and the hardware (RTDS) are presented. The future Danish electricity systems are modelled in the RTDS to carry out real time closed‐loop test. The closed‐loop real time test results for the future Danish electricity systems are presented.


A. Turk, Q. Zeng, Q. Wu, and A. H. Nielsen, “ Optimal operation of integrated electrical, district heating and natural gas system in wind dominated power system ,” International Journal of Smart Grid and Clean Energy, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 237-246, Mar. 2020

A. Turk, Q. Wu, M. Zhang, and J. Østergaard, Day-ahead stochastic scheduling of integrated multienergy system for flexibility synergy and uncertainty balancing. Energy, Vol. 196, pp. 117130-117146, Apr. 2020.

A. Turk, and Q. Wu, “Stochastic Model Predictive Control for Integrated Energy System to Manage Real-Time Power Imbalances: Case of Denmark,” PowerTech 2021 (submitted)

L. Mitridati, J. Kazempour, and P. Pinson. Heat and Electricity Market Coordination: A Scalable Complementarity Approach European Journal of Operational Research. vol. 283, no. 3, pp. 1107-1123, Jun. 2020

A. Schwele, C. Ordoudis, J. Kazempour, and Pierre Pinson, Coordination of Power and Natural Gas Systems: Convexification Approaches for Linepack Modeling. In Proc. IEEE PES PowerTech 2019

A. Schwele, C. Ordoudis, J. Kazempour, and Pierre Pinson, “Coordination of Power and Natural Gas Markets via Financial Instruments,Computational Management Science.(Submitted)

C. Ordoudis S. DelikaraoglouJ. Kazempour and P. Pinson, “Market-based coordination of integrated electricity and natural gas systems under uncertain supply,” European Journal of Operational Research, vol. 287, no. 3, pp. 1105-1119, Dec. 2020

L. Mitridati, J. Kazempour, and P. Pinson, Design and Game-Theoretic Analysis of Community-Based Market Mechanisms in Heat and Electricity Systems. Omega, vol. 99, pp. 102177, Mar. 2021,

A. Schwele, A. Arrigo, C. Vervaeren, J. Kazempour, and F. Vallée, Coordination of Electricity, Heat, and Natural Gas Systems Accounting for Network Flexibility. Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 189, pp. 106776, Dec. 2020

N. Vespermann, T. Hamacher, and J. Kazempour: “Access Economy for Storage in Energy Communities“, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, in press (Accepted)

L. Bobo, L. Mitridati, J. A. Taylor, J. Kazempour, and P. Pinson, “Price-Region Bids in Electricity Markets,” European Journal of Operational Research (Submitted)

A. D. KorbergI. R. Skov, and B. V. Mathiesen, “The role of biogas and biogas-derived fuels in a 100% renewable energy system in Denmark,” Energy, vol. 199, pp. 117426, May 2020.

Deliverables during project: 

WP1-Presentation of the modelling test-bed – v0 – Preliminary version

WP3 pre-report – Flexibility and Ramping requirements

WP5 pre-report – Optimal Dispatch of Integrated Energy System

Battery_TES_P2G_report – A supplementary report for the techno-economic database for different storage technologies

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